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History of Technological advancements (Dolby, Digital Sound, etc.)
***Still in progress!!!***

1870s -- Eadweard Muybridge -- Movement of a horse stop action photography on glass plates. Done with multiple cameras designed so that a horse's foot would trip each shutter.

# 1895 -- Louis and Auguste Lumiere present the first film projector -- the Cinematographe.
Spatialized sound in cinematic narrative.

1904 -- Frenchman Eugene Lauste records sound onto a piece of photographic film
Sound has always been an intrinsic part of the moving image, from early shorts without a proper soundtrack, accompanied by live musicians, to the modern Hollywood blockbusters that use 7.1 digital sound to enhance the reality of the narrative. As sound techniques and technologies have advanced, so too have the means of artistic expression in cinema. I intend to present an overview of sound use in cinema, and examine how some of the larger changes have influenced the structure of filmmaking. I will also touch upon the role of sound+image in modern experimental performance and computational forms of expression, in which it is possible to have the image and sound intrinsically linked.
involving the transformation of sound into light waves that are photographically recorded direct onto celluloid.

How sound is used in cinema is also an important component of any discussion involving audio technologies, as the technology has traditionally allowed greater use of the the cinematic space. Traditionally sound is used either as a form of diegeses, moving the narrative forward through speech, and also as a means of fleshing out the fictionalized worlds (ambience, sound effects, etc). This iconic aspect of sound in cinema is the aspect that has benefitted most from the introduction of these technologies. Sound is typically referred to as off-screen, or on screen, belying the primacy of the image in the equation.

1902 -- 1926: The era of the silent film while inventors including Edison sought to link sound mechanically with moving film images , "Phonofilm","Photokinema","Vitaphone".
In the early days of cinema, when people were still afraid a train was going to leap off the screen and crash into the audience, the sheer spectacle of the moving image was usually enough to keep people coming back for more. As time moved on, and the sophistication of the audience grew, so did the sophistication of the filmmakers. While there was still a rigidity to the movement, and staging was restricted to the older theatrical forms, it began to slowly achieve a language that was different from other forms at the time.

September 1925 -- Warner Bros. contracts with the AT&T method of sound with film and releases its first sound with film pictures in 1926 using a system dubbed the Vitaphone. Don Juan, released in 1926 was the first film to inlcude music on an amplified sound- track.
However, there was always an interest in linking sound with the image. As early as 1904, Eugene Lauste was recording sound onto photographic film, transforming the vibrations into light waves.1 Edison too, was interested, and produced a series of technologies that mechanically linked sound and image.2 The first film that had an amplified soundtrack, “Don Juan,” was released in 1926, using a system dubbed “Vodaphone.” The film was seen as more of a novelty than a technological breakthrough, or artistic triumph. interestingly enough, the majority of these first soundtracks gave more attention to what happened off the screen than what happened on the screen (the idea that onscreen sound was considered redundant to providing information about the story), However, in 1927, “The Jazz Singer” starring Al Jolsen was a massive financial success. Partially in response to this, studios decided to start using sound in all their films.

These first few years, the sound was muddy, mono, and everything was recorded hot to make sure it actually registered on the track. However, in 1929, Rouben Mamoulian’s first film, “Applause” (1929) used the then novel idea of creating acoustic depth by varying the amount of ambient sound in proportion to the distance of shots.3 This seemingly minor achievement began the utilization of sound to inform about the world in a fashion that went beyond “sound.”

Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer, studios driven by astounding profits to make all films with sound
Technology in filmmaking kept moving quickly: (examples of camera changes here). Aesthetic changes. Also, microphone technologies were rapidly evolving. Directional microphones presented the opportunity to pick out specific sounds from actors, and higher fidelity microphones enabled a broader range of vocal inflections to be perceived. the depth of the sound increased, became fuller, more of a real piece of the imagined world. An actor was able to now use their voice as a tool to complement their body’s language.4

n his first film, the Paramount Applause (1929), Rouben Mamoulian created the illusion of acoustic depth by varying the volume of ambient sound in proportion to the distance of shots.
As the filmic world was expanded through the introduction of sound, there were still those who proclaimed that cinema, in it’s essence, was being ruined with the introduction of the “talkies.”5

Walt Disney’s Fantasia was a breakthrough in the use of sound in cinema, incorporating 3d sound, dubbed “Fantasound.” In reality, it was a quadrophonic system that was born out of Disney’s frustration of existing sound technologies. The Philadelphia Orchestra flayed the score, and Disney was present for the recording sessions. When presented with the mix his audio engineers had created for the soundtrack, he was struck by the poor quality of sound. The engineers came up with a solution that had six channels, one for each section of the orchestra, a seventh that was a mix of those six, and an 8th channel that consisted of the entire orchestra. The film also marked the first use of the click track while recording the soundtrack, overdubbing of orchestral parts, and simultaneous multi-track recording. Special rigging and speaker setups were necessary for the accurate representation of the audio in the theater, and it was prohibitively expensive for theater owners to convert their existing setups to the specific requirements necessary for Disney’s vision. Alas, Fantasia was only shown as intended in a few theaters and only for a few runs.
On March 12, 1929, the first feature-length talking picture made in Germany had its premiere. The inaugural Tobis Filmkunst production, it was not a drama, but a documentary sponsored by a shipping line: Melodie der Welt (Melody of the World), directed by Walter Ruttmann.[103] This was also perhaps the first feature film anywhere to significantly explore the artistic possibilities of joining the motion picture with recorded sound. As described by scholar William Moritz, the movie is "intricate, dynamic, fast-paced...juxtapos[ing] similar cultural habits from countries around the world, with a superb orchestral score...and many synchronized sound effects."[104] Composer Lou Lichtveld was among a number of contemporary artists struck by the film: "Melodie der Welt became the first important sound documentary, the first in which musical and unmusical sounds were composed into a single unit and in which image and sound are controlled by one and the same impulse."[105] Melodie der Welt was a direct influence on the industrial film Philips Radio (1931), directed by Dutch avant-garde filmmaker Joris Ivens and scored by Lichtveld, who described its audiovisual aims:

In 1952, “This is Cinerama” was released, a widescreen spectacle that required a special presentation system. The experience is supposed to be akin to today’s IMAX presentations. While there were 7 audio tracks used, only six were actually sound, the 7th moderated the volume of the amplifiers). This was the first successful use of stereo sound in cinema, but again, as with Fantasia, the requirements for a theater to show the film were steep, limiting the exposure.
[T]o render the half-musical impressions of factory sounds in a complex audio world that moved from absolute music to the purely documentary noises of nature. In this film every intermediate stage can be found: such as the movement of the machine interpreted by the music, the noises of the machine dominating the musical background, the music itself is the documentary, and those scenes where the pure sound of the machine goes solo.[106]

However, one year later, “The House of Wax,” a film made in 3D, and contained a stereo soundtrack, utilizing right, left and center tracks. A backup mono track was also available. this process, “WarnerPhonic,” was only released with 3 films.

In 1976, accompanying the release of “Logan’s Run,” Dolby Stereo made it’s debut. This analog technology utilized XXXXX. With the release of Star wars in 1977, and it’s reliance on sound technology, Dolby soon became the standard for sound mixing across thousands of theaters.

As David Bordwell describes, technological improvements continued at a swift pace: "Between 1932 and 1935, [Western Electric and RCA] created directional microphones, increased the frequency range of film recording, reduced ground noise...and extended the volume range." These technical advances often meant new aesthetic opportunities: "Increasing the fidelity of recording...heightened the dramatic possibilities of vocal timbre, pitch, and loudness."[
In 1982, THX was released as a quality control system. It was developed for the release if Return of the Jedi, to verify certain theaters would have the most accurate sound reproduction of the film’s soundtrack. It covers a wide range of audio playback devices, functioning as a high-fidelity sound reproduction standard for movie theaters, screening rooms, home theaters, computer speakers, gaming consoles, and car audio systems.

1988 saw the introduction of digital standards for cinema technology. In addition to Dolby Digital, DTS (1991) was one of the early leaders in digital sound. This operates with commercial/theatrical as well as consumer applications. the most common implementation of the format is 5.1 sound, with 2 rear channels, 2 front channels, a center channel, and a LFE channel, or subwoofer.

In the first, 1930 edition of his global survey The Film Till Now, cinema pundit Paul Rotha declared, "A film in which the speech and sound effects are perfectly synchronised and coincide with their visual image on the screen is absolutely contrary to the aims of cinema. It is a degenerate and misguided attempt to destroy the real use of the film and cannot be accepted as coming within the true boundaries of the cinema."[96] Such opinions were not rare among those who cared about cinema as an art form; Alfred Hitchcock, though he directed the first commercially successful talkie produced in Europe, held that "the silent pictures were the purest form of cinema" and scoffed at many early sound films as delivering little beside "photographs of people talking."[97]
Sony too has developed their own format for digital audio, Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS), which has been used in over 1,400 films. It differs from the DTS and Dolby systems in that is is made of 8 channels of sound, 5 front channels, 2 rear, and a sub-bass channel. However, despite the increased number of sound channels, most films using SDDS still mix in 5.1, because few studios are equipped for 7.1 sound.

There are several new formats that are emerging, building off the successes of 5.1 sound. 10.1 (“twice as good as 5.1”) is said to be the aural equivalent of an IMAX theater. 22.2 is the surround sound component of Ulta High Definition Video, using 24 speakers in multiple layers.
Walt Disney's Fantasia, with 3D sound

Besides its avant-garde qualities, Fantasia was notable for being the first major film released in stereophonic sound, using a process dubbed "Fantasound".
History of Technological advancements (Dolby, Digital Sound, .

Not only did Fantasia establish animation as a true art form, it also introduced film audiences to multi-channel sound, which played a very important part in Fantasia. After the completion of The Sorcerer's Apprentice, Stokowski enlisted the Philadelphia Orchestra, of which he was the conductor, to record the music for the six remaining segments. Walt Disney was present on the sound stage during an early session, and was very pleased with what he was hearing until he heard the playback from the recording engineers. He felt the recorded version of the music sounded tinny and undynamic, and asked his engineers to see what they could do about developing a better sound system. The engineers, led by William E. Garity, responded by creating a multi-channel sound format they called Fantasound, making Fantasia the first commercial film ever to be produced in stereophonic sound. The film also marked the first use of the click track while recording the soundtrack, overdubbing of orchestral parts, and simultaneous multi-track recording.

Sound in Cinema and its Relationship to Image and Diegesis
The sound was recorded onto eight variable-width optical tracks: six were individual sections of the orchestra, the seventh was a mix of those six tracks, and the eighth was the entire orchestra. These tracks were later mixed down to three double-width optical sound tracks. The three audio tracks, and a fourth "control" track, were printed on a 35 mm filmstrip that was synchronized to a separate Technicolor release print.
Daniel Percheron; Marcia Butzel
Yale French Studies, No. 60, Cinema/Sound. (1980), pp. 16-23.
special rigging needed for each "event" space

The transfer had taken place over special high-quality telephone lines, because the optical Fantasound equipment and the magnetic recording equipment were in separate buildings and could not be brought together. This resulted in some loss of treble response, but the copies retained the original dynamic range.
example of iconic sounds (long shot of countryside, birds chirping)
"The chirping of birds must be considered chiefly as an effet de reel (the general rule is that sound is an element which reinforces the impression of reality, completes it; it is the only given, along with movement, that is reproduced integrally in the cinema and moreover, it helps to three-dimension-alize the rectangular screen"
previous sound on film had isses with noise compression.

Sound effects, for the most part, are only added articulations of the
image track, which they help to expand and make part of the filmspace

In 1938, MGM started using three tracks to record movie soundtracks instead of one and very quickly upgraded to four tracks. One track was used for dialogue, two for music and one for sound effects. These optical soundtrack recordings could easily be "mixed" down to a mono track for film release. The very first true stereo recording MGM made (although released in mono) was "It Never Rains But What It Pours" by Judy Garland, recorded on June 21, 1938 for the movie Love Finds Andy Hardy. Some of the soundtrack of Gone With The Wind used multitrack sound recording and these effects have been included in DVD releases of the film.
Narration in the Cinema of Digital Sound, Mark Kerins : The Velvet Light Trap, Number 58, Fall 2006, p 41-54
Creating visual music in jitter : randy jones and ben neville : Computer Music Journal, 29:4, pp.55–70, Winter 2005
Dynamic Independent Mapping layers for Concurrent Control of Audio & Video Synthesis : Ali Momeni*and Cyrille Henry, Computer Music Journal, 30:1, pp.49–66, Spring 2006
Stereo sound first became a wide success with the release of This Is Cinerama on September 30, 1952. Cinerama was a spectacular wide-screen process fully comparable to today's IMAX. Cinerama practically required a specially built theatre for its presentation. It used seven magnetic sound tracks, six of them audible plus a seventh track that controlled the volume level of the amplifiers. The system was developed by Hazard Reeves, a pioneer in magnetic recording technology. By all accounts, including accounts by those who have experienced the process in rare recent showings, the sound was as spectacular as the picture and excellent even by modern standards.
In April 1953, while This Is Cinerama was still playing only in New York City, most moviegoing audiences heard stereophonic sound for the first time with the Warner Bros. 3-D film production of House of Wax, starring Vincent Price. The sound system, WarnerPhonic, was a combination of a 35mm magnetic full-coat that contained Left-Center-Right, in synchronization with the two, dual-strip Polaroid system projectors, one of which carried an optical surround track, and one which carried a mono backup track should anything go wrong. Only two other films carried WarnerPhonic sound, the 3-D production of The Charge at Feather River, and Island in the Sky. The magnetic tracks to these films are considered lost.
RCA Laboratories records TV programme onto tape
Tape experiments with chromium dioxide
US Department of defense establishes a computer network that will become the basis of the Internet
Sony introduces Betamax video system for domestic use
1976:Dolby Stereo
Dolby Stereo (or Dolby Analog) was the original analog optical technology developed by Dolby Laboratories for 35 mm film prints in 1976, and first used on the movie Logan's Run. [[1]] The brand of Dolby Stereo became a world leader, and synonymous with high quality sound in thousands of movie theaters across the world.
First digital recordings in the US
THX is the trade name of a high-fidelity sound reproduction standard for movie theaters, screening rooms, home theaters, computer speakers, gaming consoles, and car audio systems. THX stands for Tomlinson Holman's eXperiment. THX was developed by Tomlinson Holman at George Lucas's company Lucasfilm in 1982 to ensure that the soundtrack for the third Star Wars film, Return of the Jedi, would be accurately reproduced in the best venues.
The THX system is not a recording technology, and it does not specify a sound recording format: all sound formats, whether digital (Dolby Digital, SDDS) or analog (Dolby SR, Ultra-Stereo), can be "shown in THX." THX is mainly a quality assurance system. THX-certified theaters provide a high-quality, predictable playback environment to ensure that any film soundtrack mixed in THX will sound as near as possible to the intentions of the mixing engineer.
Dolby Spectral Recording (SR)
Neve, Mitsubishi, SSL and Sony announce digital standards initiative
Cinema Digital Sound (CDS) is a multi-channel surround sound format used for theatrical films in the early 1990s. The system was developed by Eastman Kodak and Optical Radiation Corporation. CDS was quickly superseded by Digital Theatre System (DTS) and Dolby Digital formats.
DTS (also known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. (NASDAQ: DTSI), is a multi-channel digital surround sound format used for both commercial/theatrical and consumer grade applications. It is used for in-movie sound both on film and on DVD, and during the last few years of the format's existence, several Laserdisc releases had DTS soundtracks.
The basic and most common version of the format is a 5.1 channel system, similar to a Dolby Digital setup, which encodes the audio as five primary (full-range) channels plus a special LFE (low-frequency effect) channel, for the subwoofer.
In theatrical use, information in the form of a modified time code is optically imaged onto the film. An optical LED reader reads the timecode data off the film and sends it to the DTS processor which uses this timecode to synchronize the projected image with the soundtrack audio. The actual audio is recorded in compressed form on standard CD-ROM media at a bitrate of 1,103 kbit/s. The processor also acts as a transport mechanism, as it holds and reads the audio discs. Newer units can generally hold three discs, allowing a single processor/transport to handle two-disc film soundtracks along with a third disc containing sound for theatrical trailers. In addition, specific elements of the imprinted timecode allow identifying data to be embedded within the code, ensuring that a certain film's soundtrack will only run with that film. DTS provided the Digital Audio for IMAX until 2001, when Dolby took over.
SDDS stands for Sony Dynamic Digital Sound, which is a cinema sound system developed by Sony. Digital sound information is recorded on both outer edges of the 35 mm film release print. The system supports up to 8 independent channels of sound: 5 front channels, 2 surround channels and a sub-bass channel. This arrangement is similar to 70 mm magnetic sound formats – and is useful mainly for very large cinema screens. Smaller cinemas normally only have 3 screen channels – in which case the soundtrack is downmixed.
Out of the 1,400 plus films mixed in SDDS, only 97 of them to date have been mixed to support the full 8 channels, mostly because most mixing studios are geared towards producing 5.1 mixes rather than 7.1 mixes.
10.2 refers to the format's slogan: "Twice as good as 5.1". It has been touted as the audio equivalent of IMAX - spectacle beyond what can be achieved by any other format
22.2 or Hamasaki 22.2 is the surround sound component of Ultra High Definition Video :: it uses 24 speakers; these are arranged in three layers.
Sound in Cinema and its Relationship to Image and Diegesis
Daniel Percheron; Marcia Butzel
sound broken into diegesis and iconic functions
sound is considered onscreen, or offscreen, in deference to the primacy of the image
non-synched sound (early cinema) gave primacy to the off sound, as it was considered on sound was redundaqnt
example of iconic sounds (long shot of countryside, birds chirping)
"The chirping of birds must be considered chiefly as an effet de reel (the general rule is that sound is an element which reinforces the impression of reality, completes it; it is the only given, along with movement, that is reproduced integrally in the cinema and moreover, it helps to three-dimension-alize the rectangular screen"
Sound effects, for the most part, are only added articulations of the
provide 1 Example of analog cinema surround sound (fantasia), one of digital(??)
provide one example of future cinema (vj stuff) where image and sound are generated from the same source.
Narration in the Cinema of Digital Sound, Mark Kerins : The Velvet Light Trap, Number 58, Fall 2006, p 41-54